|Glossary of Immunological Terms - E|
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This is also called premature ovarian failure. (The ovaries run out of eggs too early). The average age of menopause is 51 years of age. Premature menopause occurs before the age of 40. It is often an indicator of autoimmune problems in the woman and is often associated with a long history of infertility or pregnancy loss through miscarriage or IVF.
The process of taking eggs from a donor, fertilizing them with the male partner's sperm in the laboratory dish and transferring the resulting embryos back to the female partner's uterus. The female partner will not be biologically related to the child but will be the birth mother of record. The male partner will be the biological father of the child.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
This is a laboratory test method to analyze blood for the presence and the amount of antibodies in the woman to DNA, phospholipids, and other things. The test tubes are coated with the substance such as the phospholipid. Then the serum to be tested is added. If there are antibodies in the serum against the phospholipid, they attach and in the process of attachment a color (dye) is released that turns the fluid in the test tube a different color. The intensity of the color tells you how high the immunity is (how much antibody is present).
The earliest stage of development of a baby after the egg is fertilized by the sperm.
A disease condition of women when the tissue that normally lines the uterus each month preparing for a baby (endometrium) leaks out of the uterus inside the body cavity and begins to grow (and menstruate) in locations such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowel, bladder and abdominal cavity. This causes pain, inflammation, scar tissue, and autoimmunity response in the woman that may make it difficult for her to become pregnant.
The lining of the uterus that is shed through menstruation each month as the menstrual period. As the monthly cycle progresses, the endometrium thickens into zones (seen on ultrasound) and provides a nourishing place for the embryo to attach and begin the process of placental development.
The female hormone that is produced by cells that live in the follicle (nest) around the developing egg. There are three estrogens Estrone E-1, Estradiol E-2 and Estriol E-3.
These are a family of three hormones produced by the ovaries which are responsible for the development of the female sex characteristics. Estrogens are responsible along with progesterone for preparing the uterine lining (endometrium) to thicken for pregnancy. Estrogens are also important for healthy bones, sexual drive, overall health and well being. A small amount of estrogens are also produced in the male. These do not result in the development of the female sex characteristics for the male hormone testosterone counteracts these effects.